Concept of Migration

Globalization has definitely shown an increased trend of migration especially from the developing to the developed countries of the world. Migration is basically a movement of people from one place i.e. origin to another i.e. destination. It can be local, regional; where people move within the borders of a nation or even international which involves crossing the borders. Generally migration occurs in order to access better opportunities in work, education, or to achieve a better standard of living.

With the relaxation of restrictions on trade and capital movements, movement of labour was also liberalized and explains the increase in migration. However in recent years due to increased FDI inflow and job creation by subsidiaries of established MNCs, there has been a check on migration levels from developing countries. These nations are characterized by surplus pauper labour, which if not absorbed in the domestic job markets, are willing to migrate to the developed nations , having labour shortages. Such countries ready to receive immigrant labour are called hostnations or receiving nations and countries from which emigrantlabour move out are called sending nations or countries of origin. For example, when an Indian student goes to Australia for higher studies or to find a job, he is an immigrant in Australia but for India he is an emigrant.

The causative factors of migration could be economic, social, environmental, or political. Instances of rural to urban migration or international migration are generally out of economic motivations such as to find better job prospects, avail of better civic amenities or raise one’s standard of living. Social factors comprise of marriage, moving closer to one’s relatives .etc. If a place is prone to environmental hazards or calamities such as earthquakes or floods, it may encourage people to migrate to more safer locales.

Political instability of any kind like rioting, acts of terrorism may create panic and fear for one’s life forcing people to move. These days people also travel afar to seek better or cheaper medical treatment.

In recent times, a lot of nations like US and UK have taken a narrow stance by introducing several measures to control in- migration. They have imposed restrictions on holding of visas and citizenship by the immigrants.

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