Gender disparity as a form of inequality is a manifestation of socio-cultural discrimination against women in society. Physical difference between man and woman, which is biological in nature is regarded “Sex”. However there is not hierarchy attached to the phenomenon of “sex” i.e. biologically being a man or a woman does not attach superiority or inferiority to either of them. It is the socio- cultural norms and the structure of patriarchy that converts ‘sex’ into ‘gender’ and then associating it with power and authority to one at the cost of the other. The term Patriarchy is derived from two words ‘patri’ and ‘arch’ which means father and rule respectively. It means ‘rule of the father’ or male domination. And it is this patriarchal structure of society in general and of family in particular that creates gender disparity or gender bias.
Gender disparity can be defined as “a situation of unequal and hierarchical relations and the socially constructed roles or stereotypes assigned to women as that of a housewife and mother are considered as ‘norms’ to be followed invariably across class, caste, race and culture. This bias often leads to denial of opportunities and injustice to women”