The preamble lays emphasis that the Indian citizens should get justice in three forms such as Social Justice, Economic Justice and Political Justice. The architects of the Constitution has made this arrangement of justice very intelligently. There can not be economic justice and political justice without social justice. Indian Society composed of castes, classes religion, race. There happened the discrimination among Indians themselves on these basis. Therefore, the constitution is bound to cultivate healthy, social attitude among people and the state must be welfare state accordingly. The social justice can be realized only when ‘equals to be treated equally and unequals unequally’ according to Aristotle.
The next step of justice which preamble secure for the Indian people is Economic Justice. Every citizen of India has right to live and earn his livelihood. They must be made available, employment opportunities taking in view social justice. The Directive Principles of State Policy make it clear that no discrimination would be made between persons on the basis of their economic status. The state is expected to enact laws and translate the concept of social and economic justice into reality.
Political Justice is only possible when there is realization of social and economic justice. Previously in India and many countries of the world were giving voting rights to only those who are rich by wealth and the high in social status. But the Indian constitution has conferred on all the Indian adult citizens the Universal Adult Suffrage without any discrimination of caste, race, religion, sex, wealth, status, etc. The Indian citizens have got one vote and one vote one value which is very significant for political justice.
Thus the concept of social, economic and political justice contained in the preamble aim at furthering the goal of social revolution and attempting to foster this revolution by establishing the conditions necessary for its achievement.
The preamble contains that liberty is secured for the Indians, which is of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship. The constitution of India secure for its citizens the liberty that everyone without any bias will have the right to think and express his own views which will not harm other’s liberty. They can convert to any religion, can worship any god and goddess or believe in any kind of philosophy they want. That is how the six kinds of freedoms are provided in the article no 19 of the Constitution.
The preamble makes mention of the equality for all the citizens of India without any kind of discrimination. There is two kind of equalities such as equality of status and equality of opportunity. Every citizen of India would be treated equal before law irrespective of his caste, religion, race, sex, language etc. As well as he shall get equal opportunity to make his economic progress. It also made clear as per the Article 16-(4) that state shall have right to enact laws and make provision for reservation of jobs or posts in favour of any backward class of citizens. This provision also promotes the cause of justice by providing protective discrimination to those class of peoples who have suffered due to historical circumstances of casteism. This is what unequals to be treated unequally that is justice.
The preamble also provides that the Constitution is bound to promote among the Indians the fraternity which assures the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation. In the words of Chief architect of Constitution Dr. B.R.Ambedkar, “Fraternity is a sense of common brotherhood and the principle which gives unity and solidarity to social life. He further says “Without fraternity equality and liberty will be no deeper than coats of paints”. Therefore, one has to take liberty, equality and fraternity not as separate objectives but as forming ‘a union of trinity’ in the sense that to diverse one from the other was to defeat the very purpose of Democracy.
All the above provisions further the people of India to adopt, enact and provide in the Constitution which is approved by Constituent Assembly on 26th November, 1949.